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Dogs in the field

Across parts of Connecticut, both farmers and ambitious gardeners alike are waking up this morning with a variety of mixed feelings.  A bit upset that temps dropped below the predicted lows, yet proud of ourselves for taking the time to cover and protect those things we’ve planted perhaps a little early.  Maybe even nervous about those things that were left uncovered thinking that they of course would be fine.  After all, they said the low was 33.  We’d be lying to say that all of these feelings aren’t currently valid for us.  The reality is that we are a farm that firmly believes in pushing it in terms of season extension on both sides of the year.  Ask us our opinion on how cold hardy somethings are and we’ll say that you would be surprised how hardy a plant can be.  That being said some plants can’t handle too cold and even a cold hardy variety that experiences too cold too fast will meet it’s demise.  This morning’s temps serve as a timely reminder to not let the nicer days lull us into complacency. As we begin to kick this year’s plant sale off to full swing, we encourage you all to reach out with any questions or for planting advice. We all know how easy it is to get over excited about getting back in the dirt.  Being out into the fields these past few weeks have brought an undeniably satisfied smile to all our faces.

Speaking of dogs in the field, after some discussion last week we thought it only fair to highlight canines.  Besides moral support and kisses our sweet boy Sid is quite the hard working farm dog.  Don’t tell the cats we said this but if you tallied up the feline verse canine rodent work load.  It’s tough to say who would come out on top.  As sweet and well behaved as he is photogenic.  The only thing harder than getting him out of bed on a cold morning like today, is getting him to come up from the farm and take a break.

We encourage you all to channel your own dog in the field this season.  Share your stories, questions, hopes and anything else with us, there are few things we enjoy talking about more than plants.  This morning we should be putting some finishing touches on the heated tunnel at SLGNW.  Stay tuned for tales and pictures of tomato plantings and probably farm animals too.

Have a great week

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Cats in the Nursery

  There is a certain amount of panic which seems to always take hold just around this time of year.  The mind runs back and fourth asking have we started enough of that, or too much of this?  Should those have been stared earlier and did we rush in transplanting that?  As the main fields begin to literally Spring forth with life and there is barely enough room in the nursery for our piece of mind let alone the countless trays to be re-potted.  It’s hard not to feel the pressure of the season approaching.  With a few deep breaths, the courage that comes with morning coffee and the confidence in what we know this beautiful farm and it’s great crew can produce, panic is easily replaced with a joyful feeling like a child on Christmas morning.  Outside a true conversion is underway, uncovering areas that have been covered and prepped since the winter, or simply covered to control weeds and protect the soil.  Uncover, prep, seed, transplant, cover again, this is the mantra of the season.  There is and undeniable beauty to each season and spring is no different offering us those moments of “yup this is why we do it” feeling.  Signs of spring are all around insects like the dreaded flea beetle(more on that in the future) return,as well as cats that stay out all night remind us that the time is here.

Speaking of cats and of a great farm crew we have some hard working felines here at Star Light.  It’s hard to imagine as they nap all day long in the nursery, indulging in the large catnip plant as they please.  But they have made impressive headway in rodent control over the years and we love them.  Even if they do knock over the occasional tray in the nursery.  Over at Star Light North West we will be firing up the nursery this week, freeing up some much needed space here in Durham.  If things go according to schedule we should be firing up the furnace in the high tunnel named Mizuna(another one of our cats) at North West this weekend too.  With a massive tomato planting to happen not long after that.

On the subject of schedule the Durham Farmer’s market is back.  Opening day last week was a bit cold and wet however, this week promises to be very pleasant. Open from 3-630 Thursdays, located right on the town green mere minutes from the farm, it’s our hometown market and it’s good to be back.  Pick up Thursdays at the Durham Farmers market is now a preordering option.

Have a great week

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The season is upon us

We know the one question that has been burning on everyone’s mind.  Have they gotten a chance to plant all those little baby beets, kales, choys and mustard’s that we’ve heard so much about?  And the answer is yes, Onions, kales, collards, beets, choys and lettuces now are taking up residence in our main fields.  With flowers soon to follow this morning.  Meanwhile the space outside the nursery, our little reminder of what needs to be transplanted this week.  It is once again full of the next round of transplants to go out.  And yes we are aware that the real transplanting question in most everyone’s mind is one simple word, tomatoes?  We are pleased to report that our first round of Jen’s grafted tomatoes will also be going into the ground today.  All of these things are great for their own obvious reasons, but the added benefit of transplanting this time of year is freeing up much needed space in the nursery.

As you can see real estate in Skye(the nursery) is at an all time premium in the spring.  One of the major reasons for this is the Spring plant sale.  We’ve been busy re-potting all the most cold hardy herbs and veg that you’ll find available on our website and at farmer’s markets this week.  We love that our customers are into growing food and it gives us pride to provide you with both the plants and food.  Is there something you really want to make sure you have in your garden this year?  Preordering is the best way to guarantee it.  Do you have questions about what varieties we will have or just a growing question?  Feel free to write or catch us at the markets.  We’re plant people and love talking about it.  In addition to plants now being available on the website other notable farm news includes opening day of the Durham Farmer’s market.

Open from 3-630 Thursdays, located right on the town green mere minutes from the farm, it’s our hometown market and it’s good to be back.  Pick up Thursdays at the Durham Farmers market is now a preordering option.

Have a great week

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Here comes the “Sun Angel”

Reading last week’s writing back this morning there is little to do but laugh and be glad we didn’t transplant all those beets, mustard, kales and choys. We moved them out of the nursery, prepped the ground, having all the intention to actually transplant them last Wednesday. Low and behold as I had my morning coffee and checked the weather my plans were literally frozen. With the low temps of tonight and last night, the facts had to be faced, there was no transplanting happening the first week of spring.

However, speaking on the first week of spring and the arrival of it’s harbingers, there was a sure sign of the season’s arrival. Despite last evening’s snow squall and temps in the 20s, here at Star Light our hearts are as warm as a lamb in a wool sweater. If you follow us on Instagram you may know but for those who don’t we would like to officially announce the newest addition to the Star Light Gardens family. Arriving in the early hours of the 23rd our sweet lamb Sun Angel.

Sunny as we have nicknamed her arrived a few weeks earlier then we expected but with the ease that only such an angel could enter the world. Showing up at Star Light North West for morning chores, Jen got her first glimpse of this sweet girl scurrying amongst the flock. Pictured with her is Momma Kenga. Despite being the most skittish of our new sheep, her motherly instincts are strong. The two are doing great needing practically no help from their human companions. Last night we fitted Sunny with an extra wool sweater to keep her warm for the cold night ahead.

Despite the cold on the farm our resolve to plant and transplant this week is strong. Though likely not until mid week. Also taking place this week is David’s birthday. Though he’ll be off celebrating during the week you could likely catch him this Saturday at the farmer’s market. Speaking of the Saturday market this week 4/2 the market moves back outside for the main season. This means opening an hour early from 9-1, hopefully not too many of us vendors will forget to set our alarms.

Stay Warm and enjoy your week

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Yup Spring

If the beautiful weather and time change of the past week hasn’t convinced you, the date will, Spring has arrived. It is a little funny how something you plan and dream about for months can sneak up on you, seemingly out of no where. Like many of you I’m sure the time change certainly came fast. It did for us, if you didn’t surmise this from last weeks lack of content. The past week had us firing on all cylinders, prepping and transplanting outside, uncovering low tunnels, pulling off row cover and yup back to plenty of 10 to 12 hour days.

The nursery is filled to the brim with tray after tray of things to be transplanted, re potted and turned into the season’s future food. From the basement and underneath the nursery table there are little shouts and strangely loud whispers. “Make room for me, I need more sun”, “re pot me I’m getting big”, “hey aren’t you supposed to start more of us?”. Our little plant friends pile up as a constant reminder of the pace and urgency of the season. First to brave the freshly prepped 2022 spring soil has been onions transplanted last week. Next come beets, bok choys, mustards, snow/snap peas and kales. We’ve moved them out of the nursery and into the open air, yes to harden them off, make room in the nursery but also as a constant reminder of what must get planted this week.

As you can imagine things are really starting to grow. The growth on the spinach and claytonia warms my heart, dear friends of cooler weather who will soon be “off” for the summer.

  Be sure to get them while you can. Mean while we walk the fine line of planting enough on time, yet not too much too early.  Yes, the long term forecast looks promising, with only a few nights in the 20s.  But we all know and as Prince said “sometimes it snows in April”.  With that in mind everyone transplanted outside will also have the protection of row cover and the makings of a low tunnel.  It feels really great to be planting outside in March and we’re pulling for a warm April to get things going nicely

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The Real Organic Project

A lot happened last year around the farm.  One thing that we are really excited about (yet somehow, we forgot to mention) is getting certified by the Real Organic Project. 

There has been many changes over the years concerning what is considered USDA certified organic.  Many describe it as a watering down of the organic standards, a statement we do not disagree with.  The Real Organic Project is aimed at getting back to a simple answer to the question, “what does organic mean.”   Healthy soil and humane treatment of animals. In 1995 the USDA defined certified organic as “an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, and enhance ecological harmony.” However, recently the USDA has opened their definition to allow big ag to grow fruits and vegetables, and animals, as organic despite the fact they never touch any soil and operate mainly on off-farm inputs. The Real Organic Project wants to reclaim the organic label and re-raise the bar of organic standards.

Recently our rep shared this video with us and asked us to spread the word. https://www.realorganicsymposium.org/post/voices_of_real_organic

There are a lot of organic farmer all-stars speaking on here and there’s a lot of great messages. The two that stuck out the most for me was Leah Penniman and Emily Oakley (maybe because they are both women in a male dominated world but that’s another blog post). It drives me crazy to go to the store and look for the organic options and see a brand that offers both organic and conventional. Like Emily says, if organic is the best option why grow any other way. And as Leah says, we need to reclaim the word organic so that it aligns more with our moral compass. When big ag grows both organic and conventional they are growing organic for the sole purpose to make money, not because they believe in the organic values that small farms like us hold so dear. And, these practices can actually be less sustainable and have more of an environmental foot print because organic at a big scale involves lots of mono-cropping, lots of inputs like fertilizers and herbicides, and get smaller yields.

Now to be clear, we are still also certified organic by the USDA. This is sort of a prerequisite to the Real Organic Project. Although, the USDA has bent the standard to allow big ag to do practices that are unthinkable to the small organic farmer, they still hold high standards about pesticides and other dangerous conventional practices. We are fired up about the Real Organic Project though. It’s the start to a new soil-based movement. Real organic farming practices can produce food to feed communities, restore the soil, better the environment, and have a negative carbon footprint. False organic practices can mono-crop, erode the soil, degrade biodiversity, and raise animals in factories.

 We appreciate our customers who support us doing what is best for the environment and for all of our health. When you make the choice to support small local farms it helps us continue to do what we all know is the right way to treat the land, and animals. Usually, it’s not as convenient as going to your grocery store and doing all your shopping at once. It requires effort and planning and time, and we really value all of you who put the work in.

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Does Our Board Of Education Feel Like A War Is Coming?

My view of the future of our town feels ominous. Judging from the experiences in many small towns in the US, it feels like its only a matter of time before Critical Race Theory (CRT) becomes a focus in District 13. Not unlike the Omicron Variant, sooner or later, the issue might become front and center in our town. Ever since our last president invited Christopher Rufo ( the guy who Tucker Carlson and Fox put on the map) to the White House and openly embraced CRT, the subject has become the most misunderstood subject around today. Much has been written on the subject. My recommendation, if you want to learn the basics is to go to Wikipedia , which has a very comprehensive and long history on the subject. The first thing you’ll learn is that the study of CRT isn’t being taught at the grade school level and also that it isn’t a socialist plot to brainwash our children. Not any more than teaching them geometry.

For my purposes today, it is only important to know that in spite of CRT being the “go to ” place for many people who are objecting to it being taught in our school (which is isn’t), that we are seeing many teachers and administrators being fired, put on administrative leave or just made irrelevant because of their support of wishing to teach their students a side of our history that is all too often glossed over. This has happened in Southlake, Texas and captured brilliantly on the podcast SOUTHLAKE. For me, its message is a scary, somber reminder of persistent undercurrents of racism that lurk beneath the surface in many (probably all ) America suburbs.

If our children grow up not knowing the full story of both slavery and racism in our country than there’s less hope that these same children will have the necessary tools to overcome this disease in their lifetime or their children’s lifetime. I read about many parents voicing concerns that delving into this matter is going to hurt their children’s self esteem. I couldn’t disagree more. Children, for the most part are empathetic , wanting to know the whole story. There can be no doubt that the history of POC in this country is riddled with horror and disgrace. Knowing what went before is the best and almost only way to help prevent racism from going forward. That and great legislating. It confuses (and yes, infuriates) me to know that there are people amongst us who would rather “move on” and not face this shameful part of our past (and present, for that matter)

My hope is that if a CRT controversy surfaces in District 13, that all sides will be able to talk, listen and respond as decent human beings. It certainly hasn’t been that way in other towns. In Bucks County, PA members of the school board who were in favor of educating our children about an unbiased history of race, were physically threaten. One board member resigned, rather than be subjected to the verbal abuse and the potential physical abuse that was all around them.

As a white person in a white town, facing the present day realities of racism is hard, challenging and full of pitfalls. One’s going to make mistakes. And that’s ok as long as we all keep trying. An open heart and mind will go a long ways towards helping to make our country an egalitarian and safe place for all citizens. For myself, this struggle is an every day thing. There ‘s so much more that I need to know. So much.

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Not A Lone Voice In The Wilderness

Is the world getting scarier for you these days? It is for me. And what I’m about to write to you has been said by many other people, all of whom are much more competent at expressing themselves than I am. Actually, I’ve two things to say. Let’s start with my worrying about the end of democracy.

Trump-style Republicans, if you haven’t noticed, are doing everything they can to erode democracy as we know it. It might start with a local school board and their insistence that Critical Race Theory not be taught in the schools. (Which, of course is ridiculous because this is a subject taught on the graduate school level). We’ve touched on this before, so I’ll only say that what needs to be taught to our children is not how to hate themselves (or other people), for what has happened in history, but rather to make sure that they come away with a true picture about how POC have REALLY been treated in this country. TSR (Trump-style Republicans) are also working on the state legislature level to destroy and limit voting rights for minorities. This includes creating laws that will enable them to change the outcomes of elections if they don’t like the results. And then there’s the Washington TSR people who believe in the Big Lie. These are the ones that Trump has in his front pocket. From my seat on Fowler Ave., these people are only interested in gaining power and at any cost. I’m still waiting for them to show just a glimmer of interest in helping people. All of this spells a potential end to democracy as we know it. Truth has taken a back seat to money and avarice. And elections (which has almost never been shown to exhibit being rigged ), will now be in the hands of a minority. Starting with Roosevelt during the New Deal, there was a sentiment in government that it was created to help people and improve lives. Now, the Republican’s message is that helping is not helping, its a hand out and further its bringing us closer and closer to Socialism. My quick response to this is “Come on!” Do these same people want to give back their social security benefits. Surely, they should also look at that as Socialism, too.

The other thing that I want to share with you is about listening to those in our community who’s opinion are different from your own. Now, I’m not talking her about believers in the Big Lie. I have to admit that hearing what some of them have to say has made me curious. No, talking to them would only be an exercise in futility for me. But there are many people who’s beliefs may be different from you that it would be possible to have a real conversation with, if you could start with respect. In that way, people will feel heard and respected and there could be room for you to question and begin to understand where they come from. Many people who don’t share your own beliefs, are still believing that what they feel is right and to the point. It would be my hope that respectful questions will help all of us to understand each other better.

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All Lives Splatter (A Terrible Thought)

The above phrase is a disturbing notion that a friend told me that they saw on a bumper sticker. What in the world is their intention by saying that? My thought is that they want to drive home the point that no matter what you think or feel, that if you’re shot, that’s the end of it all. There’s no equality, no sense of justice, just a cold hard fact-people who get shot will get hurt and sometimes fatally.

I mention all this because something happened to me that was much less serious this week at the Durham Fair. Part of my extracurricular activities is to be a member of the Durham-Middlefield Social Justice Team. We’re a loose conglomeration of people who are interested in promoting social justice in our area. One of our first efforts was to try and eliminate the confederate flag image from the Durham Fair. Some of you might remember a few years ago when a band called The Confederate Railroad played Center Stage. You, yourself might have had a conversation with a friend or relative about the confederate flag. The most common reason that I hear that people wish to display this image is because its “part of our heritage and history”. Well yes, there’s no erasing the fact that there was a moment when a whole contingent of people believed that they were better and more deserving of the wealth that this country could bestow on people and for the reason slavery was not only acceptable but necessary to make that belief prevail. And, I might add that the institution of slavery also laid the groundwork for all the other ways that people who believed they were better than anyone else could keep control of wealth, money, land and all kinds of other assets. An absolute embarrassement to look at, as we contemplate our past. These are facts that are impossible to refute. And the trauma of the past 400 years has never left the minds of POC. The confederate symbol will evoke and cause trauma. This is not unlike the Nazi Swatzika and its effect on Jewish people, all these years later.

Last fall, our group secured from the Fair Executive Committee an agreement that the vendor contract would include a warning that no confederate images could be sold or exhibited. Thank you to them for taking this stand. As the Fair drew closer, we decided that it would be important to monitor the vendors and make sure that everyone was following these guidelines. We also decided (and I subsequently ignored this. You’ll see in a few more sentences), that if we saw confederate images in any booth, that we’d not say anything to the vendor but get a message to the Fair President and see what they’d do to rectify the situation.

At my earliest moment, I was down in the Commercial Building and immediately discovered a vendor with a whole rath of confederate belt buckles. In spite of our groups agreement to say nothing at the time, I engaged with the woman behind the counter. For better or worse.

“You’re not allowed to sell confederate images here. Its in your contract.”, I said

“I didn’t see anything that said that. Are you a member of the Fair Committee?” Long pause here, while I contemplated telling her that I was. But, I’m committed to only telling the truth where ever I go, so I denied being a Fair Committee member. That seemed to make her feel that she was off the hook for a second. And then…

“Why would you even want to show these images?” Oh oh, now I opened my mouth.

“We believe that the confederate flag is part of history. You can’t erase history.” True, I thought, and at the same time thought of all those people racing to Board of Ed meetings who want to make sure that our history is taught in such a way as to not remind people of the injustices white people have inflicted on POC. This is part of Critical Race Theory, a simple concept with a lot of data supporting the notion that the mechanics of our society are designed in an insidious way to make sure that white people will always have the upper hand. So, its not like I want to erase confederate ways from people’s mind-just don’t think its ok to celebrate and legitimatize these values.

“Would you sell swastika, too?”

“No, that’s different.” But I never heard why it was from her. It was pointless. Kind of like arguing with someone about the vaccine. I’d never get anywhere. Then, wished her a good day and turned to another shelf of hats. Are any of these hats with confederate flags on it, I wondered. This was suddenly interrupted by a larger, younger than myself guy. He immediately got in my face (so to speak) and told me that I couldn’t be in his booth. Its private property and I can’t be here.

“Really, because why?”, I asked-even though I was beginning to figure this out.

“Because you harassed my wife”, he shot back. Really, I thought. Harassed? So does that mean if one asks questions and disagrees with another person, that that’s called “harassment”?

At this point in our conversation, I had many feelings. First, Just general confrontations can be difficult for me. And considering that this person was bigger and younger also made me feel intimidated. But of most importance, I was being denied to be physically present where everyone else in the Commercial Tent was free to roam. My rights were being denied. Ok. A small inconvenience. Nothing like being a black student blocked from entering college or a lunch counter or a seat at the front of the bus. But it was real and not in any way a good feeling.

To be very clear, my momentary loss of freedom sits almost no where in the injustices that POC experiences for centuries and up to this day. Nowhere. But it did give me a small window into what powerlessness feels like. This was a small crack in my white male privilege life.

Turns our that vendor must have read their contract after I left because I returned with friends later, who scouted out the booth and reported that the confederate buckles were removed. This isn’t the end of the story, of course. Just a tiny step to eliminate images that cause trauma in the world. It didn’t stop Demolition Derby from having a car entry with a confederate flag on the roof, imitating the General Lee from The Dukes of Hazzard. Still, it felt good that we nudged the pile of crap that we call racism just one more spot from where it was.

Have a great week.

David

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I’m Holding My Breath

The events in Texas this week in regards to gun control, voters suppression and the Supreme Court’s decision not to review their anti-abortion law more than ever make me fear for the future of democracy. We should all stand up and take notice of what Republicans are doing. They have moved forward with all these issues inspite of a clear majority not in their camp.

Below, in full entirety is a letter that I received from the wonderful Heather Cox Richardson, a historian who teaches at Boton College. She is happy to share her thoughts with anyone. It not only outlines the historical mistake that is being made, but also serves notice on all of us to be weary and concerned about the direction our country is going in. Here is the letter:

September 3, 2021 Heather Cox RichardsonSep 4The new anti-abortion law in Texas is not just about abortion; it is about undermining civil rights decisions made by the Supreme Court during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The Supreme Court declined to stop a state law that violates a constitutional right.Since World War II, the Supreme Court has defended civil rights from state laws that threaten them. During the Great Depression, Democrats under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began to use the government to regulate business, provide a basic social safety net—this is when we got Social Security—and promote infrastructure. But racist Democrats from the South balked at racial equality under this new government.After World War II, under Chief Justice Earl Warren, a Republican appointed by President Dwight Eisenhower, and Chief Justice Warren Burger, a Republican appointed by Richard Nixon, the Supreme Court set out to make all Americans equal before the law. They tried to end segregation through the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, decision prohibiting racial segregation in public schools. They protected the right of married couples to use contraception in 1965. They legalized interracial marriage in 1967. In 1973, with the Roe v. Wade decision, they tried to give women control over their own reproduction by legalizing abortion.They based their decisions on the due process and the equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, passed by Congress in 1866 and ratified in 1868 in the wake of the Civil War. Congress developed this amendment after legislatures in former Confederate states passed “Black Codes” that severely limited the rights and protections for formerly enslaved people. Congress intended for the powers in the Fourteenth to enable the federal government to guarantee that African Americans had the same rights as white Americans, even in states whose legislatures intended to keep them in a form of quasi-slavery.Justices in the Warren and Burger courts argued that the Fourteenth Amendment required that the Bill of Rights apply to state governments as well as to the federal government. This is known as the “incorporation doctrine,” but the name matters less than the concept: states cannot abridge an individual’s rights, any more than the federal government can. This doctrine dramatically expanded civil rights.From the beginning, there was a backlash against the New Deal government by businessmen who objected to the idea of federal regulation and the bureaucracy it would require. As early as 1937, they were demanding an end to the active government and a return to the world of the 1920s, where businessmen could do as they wished, families and churches managed social welfare, and private interests profited from infrastructure projects. They gained little traction. The vast majority of Americans liked the new system.But the expansion of civil rights under the Warren Court was a whole new kettle of fish. Opponents of the new decisions insisted that the court was engaging in “judicial activism,” taking away from voters the right to make their own decisions about how society should work. That said that justices were “legislating from the bench.” They insisted that the Constitution is limited by the views of its framers and that the government can do nothing that is not explicitly written in that 1787 document. This is the foundation for today’s “originalists” on the court. They are trying to erase the era of legislation and legal decisions that constructed our modern nation. If the government is as limited as they say, it cannot regulate business. It cannot provide a social safety net or promote infrastructure, both things that cost tax dollars and, in the case of infrastructure, take lucrative opportunities from private businesses. It cannot protect the rights of minorities or women.Their doctrine would send authority for civil rights back to the states to wither or thrive as different legislatures see fit. But it has, in the past, run into the problem that Supreme Court precedent has led the court to overturn unconstitutional state laws that deprive people of their rights (although the recent conservative courts have chipped away at those precedents). The new Texas law gets around this problem with a trick. It does not put state officers in charge of enforcing it. Instead, it turns enforcement over to individual citizens. So, when opponents sued to stop the measure from going into effect, state officials argued that they could not be stopped from enforcing the law because they don’t enforce it in the first place. With this workaround, Texas lawmakers have, as Justice Stephen Breyer noted in his dissent, “delegate[d] to private individuals the power to prevent a woman from…[exercising]…a federal constitutional right.”Justice Sonia Sotomayor was more forceful, calling the measure “a flagrantly unconstitutional law engineered to prohibit women from exercising their constitutional rights and evade judicial scrutiny.” And yet, the Supreme Court permitted that state law to stand simply by refusing to do anything to stop it. As Sotomayor wrote in her dissent: “Last night, the Court silently acquiesced in a State’s enactment of a law that flouts nearly 50 years of federal precedents.” A state has undermined the power of the federal government to protect civil rights. It has given individuals who disagree with one particular right the power to take it away from their neighbors. But make no mistake: there is no reason that this mechanism couldn’t be used to undermine much of the civil rights legislation of the post–World War II years.On September 4, 1957, three years after the Brown v. Board of Education decision, a crowd of angry white people barred nine Black students from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The white protesters chanted: “Two, four, six, eight, we ain’t gonna integrate.” In 1957, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower used the federal government to protect the constitutional rights of the Little Rock Nine from the white vigilantes who wanted to keep them second-class citizens. In 2021, the Supreme Court has handed power back to the vigilantes. —-Notes:​​https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/20pdf/21a24_8759.pdfShareThanks for subscribing to Letters from an American. This post is public, so feel free to share it.Share© 2021 Heather Cox Richardson Unsubscribe
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